Skip to main content
  • Agglomeration

    In powder processing, agglomeration is defined as a process of accumulating fine material into cohesive units such as pellets or granules. In simple terms, powder agglomeration shifts fine, powdery particles to a coarser size range that facilitates handling and storage.

    Read more
  • Aseptic

    The word "aseptic" is derived from the term "sepsis". The organism of mammals and humans develops counter-reactions when blood poisoning is present. A severe counter-reaction is called sepsis. It can even destroy the body's own tissue and organs. The "a" at the beginning of the word symbolizes the opposite.

    Read more
  • CIP cleaning-in-place

    CIP (Cleaning In Place) is a process for the automated cleaning of process equipment. The definition and objective of CIP can be described as follows: Creating clean internal surfaces of a production unit without significantly changing the internal elements required for production. Depending on the water pressure during cleaning, a distinction is made between low-pressure cleaning (up to 3 bar), medium-pressure cleaning (up to 10 bar) and high-pressure cleaning (25-65 bar). The process is sometimes also referred to as "washing in place" (WIP).

    Read more
  • Coating

    The coating process for powder processing is based on the principle of particle agglomeration as a side operation of the powder mixing or fluid bed process. Interparticle adhesion effects of small particles can be particularly large. They result from Van der Vals forces and electromagnetic forces. If the particles are only a few nanometers in size, they can coat active ingredient particles particularly well. Coating attempts to enlarge the mixture particles in a shell-like manner. In short, coating processes optimize properties of a bulk material in terms of shelf life, optical appearance, solubility, dust binding, flow behavior, durability, chemical reaction and much more.

    Read more
  • Dispersing and Deagglomerating of Powder

    Dispersing: Definition and importance of the process in mixing technology. A homogeneous dispersion is a bulk material in which the porosity is homogeneously distributed. If agglomerates are present, then they must be broken up until the primary particles are present.

    Read more
  • Powder Drying

    Powder drying removes liquid components from a bulk material. Liquids can adhere very firmly, especially if the powder particles have small pores. These are called capillaries. Capillary-bound liquid is evaporated by thermokinetics.

    Read more
  • Continuous mixer, flow through mixer, online mixer

    Other designations are continuous mixer or flow mixer or online mixer. Continuous mixers or flow mixers are almost always used in continuous operation. Continuous-flow mixers have relatively small dimensions. However, they can mix large volume flows. Flow mixers require accurately working dosing systems. If the dosing systems work incorrectly, then it is difficult to find out how much mixing material has already been produced incorrectly.

    Read more
  • Emulsification Emulsifying Emulsion

    If you pour a small amount of oil into a glass of water, it is not normally possible to mix the oil with the water. Oil is the lighter of the two liquids. After shaking, the oil bubbles rise from the water and settle as a layer of oil on top of the water.

    Read more
  • Fluidisation, Fluidise, loosening powder by air injection

    A powder is fluidised when all particles are surrounded by a gas. The powder particles no longer touch each other. The friction between them is eliminated. Fluidised powder behaves like a low-viscosity liquid. The smallest openings in the vessel (such as an incomplete weld seam, leaky fitting) lead to unwanted dust leakage. Fluidisation occurs more easily the smaller the particles are.

    Read more
  • Granulation, Granulators

    The correct term is ‘agglomeration’ or ‘agglomerate granulation’. The term granulation can also describe a comminution process, e.g. when a solid is comminuted into a collection of particles / granules. Please read our detailed glossary article ‘Agglomerating’ and our blog post on ‘Agglomerating’.

    Read more
  • Instantising

    Instantising makes powdery substances quickly wettable, dispersible and soluble on contact with a liquid.

    Read more
  • Mixing


    Mixing is the distribution of one or more substances in another substance. The substances differ from each other in at least one property. The substances can be solid, liquid or gaseous.

    Read more
  • Pelletising

    Many compound feedstuffs are pressed into pellets. But also wood chips for furnaces and aggregates for steel smelting. Roller compactors press the bulk material through moulds. The bulk material produced in this way is dust-free, segregation-free and free-flowing.

    Read more
  • Qualifying

    Consumer rights are generally monitored at national level. This is to ensure that only products that do not pose a risk are placed on the market.

    Read more
  • Roughness parameter

    In powder mixers, agglomerators, vacuum mixer dryers and synthesis reactors, the surface quality of the parts in contact with the product plays an important role.

    Read more
  • SIP

    Sterilisation in Place: describes a cleaning technique for process engineering systems

    Read more
  • Suspending

    Introduction of solid particles into a liquid, where they are held in suspension through mechanical forces. A heterogeneous mixture that has a tendency of phase separation.

    Read more
  • Dead space

    An area within a process engineering apparatus that is not reached during a process step.

    Read more
  • Drying vacuum Mixing drying

    Contact drying, convection drying, reaction control, stripping, separation of fluids under pressure-, vacuum excitation and temperature control

    Read more
  • Validation

    Validation provides documented proof that a process or system satisfies the specified requirements during practical application. To this end the devices used (e.g. mixers) have to be qualified in advance.

    Read more
  • Homogenizer

    Homogenizer or mixer?

    In solids process engineering, the terms "homogenizing, homogenizer" and "mixing, mixer" are used synonymously. This refers to the dispersion of one substance in another with the aim of achieving as uniform a distribution of all particles as possible. The result is a homogeneous powder mixture. Homogeneity is equated here with the ideal mixing quality of a homogeneous bulk material.

    Read more
  • Particle size distribution

    The particle size distribution describes the size and number of particles. A dispersed solid system, a suspension or an emulsion can be considered. Sometimes it is also referred to as a grain size distribution. What is meant is the same thing, namely the particle size distribution.

    Read more
  • Vacuum Mixer

    This article on the subject of vacuum relates to mixers, vacuum mixers/dryers and synthesis reactors as used in plants in the chemical, pharmaceutical and food industries.

    Read more
  • Homogenization

    Homogenization of bulk materials means the uniform distribution of particle size, moisture, color and temperature of an existing mixture or bulk material.

    Homogenizing silos have a vertical mixing screw in the center. This allows good-flowing, dry plastic granules to be homogenized.

    Cone screw mixers and Gyraton mixers belong to the precision large mixers. Both have mixing tools that are moved orbitally. They work gently and with minimal energy consumption. They produce very high mixing qualities.

    Pneumatic silo mixers operate without mixing tools. The mix is swirled by the inflowing gas. The mixing materials must be finely grained, fluidisable, dry and monodisperse. All components must have a very similar bulk density. In this way, for example, several hundred tons of cement can be homogenized. The supplied gas generates a lot of dust. Powerful filters clean the dust and discharge the gas from the silo.

    Batch mixers are much smaller. They operate at higher speeds than large mixers. They can change the particle size of powders. They can desagglomerate lumps. They can distribute small amounts of liquid into the powder. They can agglomerate the finest particles. The specific energy input of batch mixers is significantly higher than that of large mixers.

    Free fall mixer: Here, an asymmetrically designed container mixes by slowly rotating around a horizontal axis. The mixing goods undergo overthrowing and sliding in the mixer. There are often fixtures such as paddles and deflectors in the mixing chamber. Free fall mixers require longer mixing times. They usually mix gently. However, they can only be used for free-flowing and low-dust goods. Free fall mixers should not be used if the goods are adhesive or if the bulk densities/particle sizes of the components differ greatly.

    Read more