Glossary

3-A Sanitary Standards, Inc.

3-A SSI is an independent, not-for-profit corporation dedicated to advancing hygienic equipment design for the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical industries.

We represent the interests of three stakeholder groups with a common commitment to promoting food safety and the public health — regulatory sanitarians, equipment fabricators and processors.
http://www.3-a.org

Agglomeration-Granulation

In powder processing, agglomeration is defined as the process of amassing material fines into cohesive units like pellets or granules. Simply put, powder agglomeration means making fine powdery particles stick together to form larger particles that are easier to handle.

Agglomeration is also commonly referred to as particle size enlargement. While powder agglomeration results in particles that look visibly different, chemically speaking, the solid particles are the same as before they were agglomerated. The only difference is that agglomerated particles are held together by binding mechanisms that leave voids between the particles. These voids add porosity to the product, making agglomerated materials more soluble and permeable than loose powders.

Depending on the material to be agglomerated, different powder agglomerating techniques and equipment can be used. Pelletizers, granulators, briquetters, and compactors are all examples of industrial agglomerating equipment for powders.

amixon® engineers a range of industrial mixing machines capable of agglomerating dispersive goods during the mixing process. Particularly suited for powder agglomeration is the RMG continuous granulator, a pin mixer model that operates at high rotational speeds to fling materials towards the walls of the horizontal mixing chamber, thereby creating a ring layer in which powdery particles aggregate into uniform granules.

Agglomeration techniques

There are three basic categories of industrial particle agglomeration techniques: pressure agglomeration, sintering, and tumble-growth agglomeration.

Pressure agglomeration

In pressure agglomeration, powders or other dry particles are mechanically compressed into the desired solid form. The applied force can vary in its intensity, from low-pressure extrusion to high-pressure rollers or punch compacting. Pressure agglomeration is typically a dry process requiring no moisture or binding agents. Some common household products that are manufactured via pressure agglomeration include charcoal briquettes and cat litter.

Sintering

Sintering, also known as frittage, is a thermal agglomeration process during which the atoms within the materials diffuse and form bridges across distinct particles, joining them together. Sintering involves heating products without melting them, and as such is particularly well-suited for materials with very high melting points. For this reason, sintering is often used in powder metallurgy.

Tumble-growth agglomeration

Tumble-growth agglomeration, also known as agitation agglomeration, is the most versatile method of agglomeration that is typically used in creating consumer products. This method uses a high-speed rolling action that causes powdery particles to come together as larger, denser particles.

As the rotary motion of the mixing chamber forces the powders to the edges, the particles move along the same path and gradually build up like a snowball rolling down a hill. Tumble-growth agglomeration is typically a wet process involving added moisture or binding agents.

Granulation, pelletizing, micro-pelletizing, and conditioning are all examples of common tumble-growth agglomeration techniques. Each process differs from the others in terms of the size, shape, distribution, and uniformity of the agglomerated particles produced. The RMG pin mixer from amixon®, for example, can be used as a wet granulator or pelletizer and customized to produce agglomerates with a wide range of diameters.  

Learn more about the applications and benefits of powder agglomeration.

Aseptic

Aseptic treatment, working under aseptic conditions, production of sterile products for the pharmaceutical sector.

ASME

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) is a professional association of mechanical engineers in the US.

It was founded in 1880. The association develops technical guidelines and standards, particularly for pressure vessels. In addition it promotes science and engineering technology and offers professional training. In many areas the Association of German Engineers (VDI) has a similar function as ASME. ASME standards are used in many countries around the world. Knowledge and application of these standards is therefore also important for many companies based in Germany involved in exporting products and services.

ATEX

ATEX derives its name from the French title of the 94/9/EC directive: Appareils destinés à être utilisés en ATmosphères EXplosibles.

The ATEX directive consists of two EU directives describing what equipment and work environment is allowed in an environment with an explosive atmosphere.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ATEX_directive

CIP

Procedure for automated cleaning of process engineering equipment. The definition and aims of CIP can be described as follows: Creating clean interior surfaces in production plants without significant modification of the fixtures required for production runs. Depending on the water pressure during cleaning a distinction is made between low-pressure cleaning (up to 10 bar) and high-pressure cleaning (25-65 bar).

Design requirements:

  • Full wetting of all interior surfaces by the cleaning agents
  • No spray shadows in containers
  • No air bubbles in valves, pumps, piping, connecting pieces, gaskets and cross-section widening pieces of any type
  • No inaccessible dead spaces
  • Avoidance of difficult to wet surfaces, e.g. narrow slots in gaskets, flanges, vessel nozzles
  • Full drainability of the system

CleverCut®

Cleaned water is compressed to about 4,000 bar and directed onto the material to be cut by a sapphire nozzle. Sand can be optionally added to the water. The cutting jet acts as a thin diamond saw blade. CNC command data guide the cutting jet three-dimensionally over the workpiece.

  • Workpiece dimensions can be up to 3 metres by 3 metres by 6 metres
  • Wall thickness can vary from 1 mm to 200 mm
  • There are no cutting forces during separation
  • No change of structure; the components remain cold
  • Ideal for the manufacture of inspection doors and for spherical welding preparations

http://www.clevercut.com

Coating

Coating of bulk materials and mixtures for protection from external influences such as humidity or oxygen, or for changing the sensory characteristics using fat, oil, wax, etc. Coating of active ingredients for accelerating or inhibiting the solubility or oxidation, or for achieving a retarding effect.

  • Coating of spice compounds with hard fat, coating of marinades with powder, application of lecithins, coating of salts with fat
  • Hydrophobisation of rare earths, coating of iron core magnetic materials with lacquer, film-lacquering and rounding off of soot pellets, coating of fertilisers
  • Covering of granulates with ductility aids
  • Coating of metal particles:
    • xs < 0.1 µm with nano-powder
    • xs < 10-3 µm coating of agglomerates with films and glazes.

ComDisc®

A process developed by amixon®, which guarantees the complete emptying of the mixing goods from a mixer to up to 99.997% and more.

The combination of the production of ideal mixed goods and the subsequent discharge of the mixed product maximizes the efficiency of the production process.

Deagglomeration

Separating of active ingredient particles and micro-fine distribution of liquids.

In many cases this results in undesirable agglomerates which have to be destroyed (deagglomerated) using shear dispersers or smizers (grinding-mixing). Examples of applications: For enhanced development of flavours, spices are separated, liquids distributed very finely, agglutinated materials are pulverised, lecithins are distributed in baking agents, and block grease and block lecithin are broken down.

Dispersing

The term describes the fine distribution of a solid or liquid substance in a basic formulation, involving a minimum of 2 components.

Dispersing and desagglomerating

Deagglomerating is random and results from the flowing and swirling of the mixture at high velocity. This operation is combined with high energy input.

Primary particles, which have a tendency towards agglomeration or aggregation in smaller grain sizes, can be de-agglomerated by rubbing and crushing. In practice, the deagglomeration takes place by shearing, impact loading and friction (cutting rotors, HighShearBlades, dissolver, milling machines).

  • amixon® has patented smizers and rotor-stators.
  • The achievable mixing quality increases with increasing disintegration of the individual components.
  • The mixing quality describes the equal distribution/ homogeneity of the components.

amixon® guarantees technically ideal mixing quality, which cannot be improved in practice!

EHEDG

EHEDG, the (European Hygienic Engineering and Design Group) is a European-based non-governmental organization

The EHEDG is devoted to the advancement of hygienic design and food engineering. EHEDG is a consortium of equipment manufacturers, food industries, research institutes and public health authorities, founded in 1989 with the aim to promote hygiene during the processing and packing of food products.
https://www.ehedg.org
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Hygienic_Engineering_and_Design_Group

Emulsification-emulsion

Emulsification refers to the attempted mixing of two or more immiscible liquids such as oil and water.

An emulsion is a more or less distributed mixture of the two liquids. A surfactant (= emulsifier) can be used to avoid subsequent phase separation. Emulsification can usually only be carried out under the influence of very high shear energies.

FDA

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is the drug approval authority in the United States and is responsible to the Department of Health.

It was founded in 1927 and is based in Rockville (Maryland). It defines which raw materials may be used for gaskets, lubricating oils etc. in the production of food and drugs.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Food_and_Drug_Administration

Fluidisation

Bulk materials are referred to being in a fluidised state if the material almost behaves like a liquid under the influence of mechanical movement.

GMP

Good Manufacturing Practice, guidelines for quality assurance of production processes and production facilities, particularly in the pharmaceutical, food and animal feed industry.

Compliance with the guidelines is intended to ensure long-term product quality and compliance with the requirements of the health authorities.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Good_manufacturing_practice

Homogenising

Spreading of one or several components within another component, with the components differing in at least one property (colour, chemical composition, particle shape, particle size, ...)

Distributive mixing means the distribution or adsorption of one component in/ beside another component.
Dispersive mixing is random and results from the flowing and swirling of the mix.

Gentle homogenising or intensive mixing in the same device.

Homogenisation of highly concentrated active compounds as premix and distribution in carriers: antibiotics, inhalers, analgesics, vitamin preparations, etc. dried soups, baby food, baking agents, bacteria cultures, convenience foods, spices, preparation of hydrocolloids, instant puddings, muesli, phosphoric acid derivates for Cola drinks, coffee, athlete's food, iodisation of cooking salt, tobacco, active agents or catalysts, organic or inorganic colour pigments, battery materials, fertilisers, fire extinguisher powders, pesticides, (fungicides, herbicides, insecticides), separating agents, detergents, blasting agents, duromers and elastomers, raw material processing, dyeing, FDA-compliant master batch plastics preparation for medical engineering, coating powder dry blends with resins and fillers, doping of pigments, high temperature materials, superconductors, ceramic powder as dielectric for capacitors.

Instantising

Instantising is used to provide powdery substances with high wettability, dispersibility, solubility and flow ability

. Instant products are usually powders that have to be mixed with further components (usually a cold, warm or hot liquid) in order to obtain a drinkable or eatable product within a very short time.

Mixing

Gentle homogenising or intensive mixing in the same device.

Homogenisation of highly concentrated active compounds as premix and distribution in carriers: antibiotics, inhalers, analgesics, vitamin preparations, etc. dried soups, baby food, baking agents, bacteria cultures, convenience foods, spices, preparation of hydrocolloids, instant puddings, muesli, phosphoric acid derivates for Cola drinks, coffee, athlete's food, iodisation of cooking salt, tobacco, active agents or catalysts, organic or inorganic colour pigments, battery materials, fertilisers, fire extinguisher powders, pesticides, (fungicides, herbicides, insecticides), separating agents, detergents, blasting agents, duromers and elastomers, raw material processing, dyeing, FDA-compliant master batch plastics preparation for medical engineering, coating powder dry blends with resins and fillers, doping of pigments, high temperature materials, superconductors, ceramic powder as dielectric for capacitors.

Learn more about the diverse techniques and applications of industrial powder mixing

MultiPlane®

The MultiPlane® mixing tool mixes particularly fast and gently with a minimum input of energy. The subsequent emptying takes place fast and without segregation.

Pelletising

Creation of spherical particles from a powdery mix by using a liquid additive. Pellets generally have a higher density than agglomerates and are very compact.

Qualifying

Qualifying of process engineering equipment such as mixers and mixing-dryers refers to documented testing to establish whether the equipment meets the requirements specified for the process.

Ideally this qualification should be carried out by the equipment manufacturer, or the manufacturer should at least provide the associated documents.

Roughness parameter

This parameter usually describes the quality of the product-contacting and external surfaces of process equipment.

The commonly used roughness parameter "Ra" is the arithmetic mean of the deviations from the centre line.

SinConvex®

The SinConvex mixing tool initiates an upward movement of the goods along the periphery.

The downward movement of the goods takes place in the centre of the vessel. This type of rearrangement works quick, reliably and without any dead space at different filling levels. On demand choppers can enhance the liquid incorporation and homogeneity. The patented SinConvex® system enables particularly effective mixing and discharge. With SinConvex® mixing tools you achieve technically ideal mixing qualities that cannot be improved any further in practice – within minimum mixing times and with maximum protection of the products. https://trademarks.justia.com/777/41/sinconvex-77741244.html

SIP

Sterilisation in Place: describes a cleaning technique for process engineering systems,

e.g. in the pharmaceutical industry, by definition the product-contacting surfaces of the equipment are cleaned without disassembly. Comparable with CIP – Cleaning in Place, although in addition superheated steam (via overpressure or carrier gases) or chemicals are used for sterilisation.

Suspending

Introduction of solid particles into a liquid, where they are held in suspension through mechanical forces. A heterogeneous mixture that has a tendency of phase separation.

Dead space

An area within a process engineering apparatus that is not reached during a process step.

Such areas should be avoided in a mixer. The aim is to initiate total mixing across the whole volume with no dead space, in order to achieve an ideal mix of the whole mixer volume within a short time.

USDA

The United States Department of Agriculture is responsible for food safety, promotes healthy nutrition and fights hunger.

Vacuum drying

Vacuum drying is a batch operation performed in an air-tight vessel.

Using vacuum pumps, the pressure and humidity within the chamber are reduced. By lowering the atmospheric pressure within the chamber, the materials inside dry more quickly and at lower temperatures than in other types of industrial dryers. Because the temperatures are lower, vacuum drying is especially well-suited for drying heat-sensitive materials.

amixon® vacuum dryer models AMT and VMT dry their contents through contact with the indirectly heated walls. In this sense, vacuum drying is essentially contact drying in a vacuum.

Learn more about the vacuum drying process, its applications, and its advantages over other industrial drying techniques. 

Validation

Validation provides documented proof that a process or system satisfies the specified requirements during practical application. To this end the devices used (e.g. mixers) have to be qualified in advance.

WaterDragon®

System for automatic wet-cleaning and automatic drying WaterDragon® operates automatically in the closed system practically without spray shadow.

The system empties and dries itself completely and seals itself pressure-tight and vacuum-tight. It offers simple control, requires only one linear drive, takes up little in- stallation space and has a low weight. For the drying process large quantities of warm air can be put into the mixing chamber through the system. Installation positions: horizontal, vertical or inclined.