Glossary

Agglomeration-Granulation
acronym of:
Agglomeration-Granulation

Grain enlargement, build-up granulation for avoiding segregation and for improving the handling characteristics, for binding of dust,Baby food, tea, inerting of self-service fast food: influencing of solubility, sinking behaviour and dispersibility. Dry pelletizing of soot, build-up granulation of caoutchouc and raw ceramic mixes, Preparation of rinsing and detergent components with so-called blasting agents Hydrophobisation of hygroscopic plastic powder, pre-processing of insulation and filling materials, antistatic agents, flame retardants, continuous hot/cold processing of bulk PVC material, Mechanical alloying, preparation of metal powder for isostatic pressing.

Aseptic
acronym of:
Aseptic

Aseptic treatment, working under aseptic conditions, production of sterile products for the pharmaceutical sector.

ASME
acronym of:
American Society of Mechanical Engineers

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) is a professional association of mechanical engineers in the US. It was founded in 1880. The association develops technical guidelines and standards, particularly for pressure vessels. In addition it promotes science and engineering technology and offers professional training. In many areas the Association of German Engineers (VDI) has a similar function as ASME. ASME standards are used in many countries around the world. Knowledge and application of these standards is therefore also important for many companies based in Germany involved in exporting products and services.

CIP
acronym of:
CIP

Cleaning In Place
Procedure for automated cleaning of process engineering equipment. The definition and aims of CIP can be described as follows:Creating clean interior surfaces in production plants without significant modification of the fixtures required for production runs.

    Depending on the water pressure during cleaning a distinction is made between low-pressure cleaning (up to 10 bar) and high-pressure cleaning (25-65 bar).
    Design requirements:
    • Full wetting of all interior surfaces by the cleaning agents
    • No spray shadows in containers
    • No air bubbles in valves, pumps, piping, connecting pieces, gaskets and cross-section widening pieces of any type
    • No inaccessible dead spaces
    • Avoidance of difficult to wet surfaces, e.g. narrow slots in gaskets, flanges, vessel nozzles
    • Full drainability of the system

Coating
acronym of:
Coating

Coating of bulk materials and mixtures for protection from external influences such as humidity or oxygen, or for changing the sensory characteristics using fat, oil, wax, etc. Coating of active ingredients for accelerating or inhibiting the solubility or oxidation, or for achieving a retarding effect.
Coating of spice compounds with hard fat, coating of marinades with powder, application of lecithins, coating of salts with fat
Hydrophobisation of rare earths, coating of iron core magnetic materials with lacquer, film-lacquering and rounding off of soot pellets, coating of fertilisers
Covering of granulates with ductility aids
Coating of metal particles:
xs < 0.1 µm with nano-powder
xs < 10-3 µm coating of agglomerates with films and glazes.

Deagglomeration
acronym of:
Deagglomeration

Separating of active ingredient particles and micro-fine distribution of liquids. In many cases this results in undesirable agglomerates which have to be destroyed (deagglomerated) using shear dispersers or smizers (grinding-mixing). Examples of applications: For enhanced development of flavours, spices are separated, liquids distributed very finely, agglutinated materials are pulverised, lecithins are distributed in baking agents, and block grease and block lecithin are broken down.

Dispersing
acronym of:
Dispersing

The term describes the fine distribution of a solid or liquid substance in a basic formulation, involving a minimum of 2 components.

Emulsification-emulsion
acronym of:
Emulsification-emulsion

Emulsification refers to the attempted mixing of two or more immiscible liquids such as oil and water. An emulsion is a more or less distributed mixture of the two liquids. A surfactant (= emulsifier) can be used to avoid subsequent phase separation. Emulsification can usually only be carried out under the influence of very high shear energies.

FDA
acronym of:

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is the drug approval authority in the United States and is responsible to the Department of Health. It was founded in 1927 and is based in Rockville (Maryland). It defines which raw materials may be used for gaskets, lubricating oils etc. in the production of food and drugs.

Fluidisation
acronym of:
Fluidisation

Bulk materials are referred to being in a fluidised state if the material almost behaves like a liquid under the influence of mechanical movement.

GMP
acronym of:
GMP

Good Manufacturing Practice, guidelines for quality assurance of production processes and production facilities, particularly in the pharmaceutical, food and animal feed industry. Compliance with the guidelines is intended to ensure long-term product quality and compliance with the requirements of the health authorities.

Instantising
acronym of:
Instantising

Instantising is used to provide powdery substances with high wettability, dispersibility, solubility and flowability. Instant products are usually powders that have to be mixed with further components (usually a cold, warm or hot liquid) in order to obtain a drinkable or eatable product within a very short time.

Mixing
acronym of:
Mixing

Gentle homogenising or intensive mixing in the same device. Homogenisation of highly concentrated active compounds as premix and distribution in carriers: antibiotics, inhalers, analgesics, vitamin preparations, etc. dried soups, baby food, baking agents, bacteria cultures, convenience foods, spices, preparation of hydrocolloids, instant puddings, muesli, phosphoric acid derivates for Cola drinks, coffee, athlete's food, iodisation of cooking salt, tobacco, active agents or catalysts, organic or inorganic colour pigments, battery materials, fertilisers, fire extinguisher powders, pesticides, (fungicides, herbicides, insecticides), separating agents, detergents, blasting agents, duromers and elastomers, raw material processing, dyeing, FDA-compliant master batch plastics preparation for medical engineering, coating powder dry blends with resins and fillers, doping of pigments, high temperature materials, superconductors, ceramic powder as dielectric for capacitors.

Pelletising
acronym of:
Pelletising

Creation of spherical particles from a powdery mix by using a liquid additive. Pellets generally have a higher density than agglomerates and are very compact.

Qualifying
acronym of:
Qualifying

Qualifying of process engineering equipment such as mixers and mixing-dryers refers to documented testing to establish whether the equipment meets the requirements specified for the process. Ideally this qualification should be carried out by the equipment manufacturer, or the manufacturer should at least provide the associated documents.

Roughness parameter
acronym of:
Roughness parameter

This parameter usually describes the quality of the product-contacting and external surfaces of process equipment. The commonly used roughness parameter "Ra" is the arithmetic mean of the deviations from the centre line.

SIP
acronym of:
SIP

Sterilisation in Place: describes a cleaning technique for process engineering systems, e.g. in the pharmaceutical industry, by definition the product-contacting surfaces of the equipment are cleaned without disassembly. Comparable with CIP – Cleaning in Place, although in addition superheated steam (via overpressure or carrier gases) or chemicals are used for sterilisation.

Suspending
acronym of:
Suspending

Introduction of solid particles into a liquid, where they are held in suspension through mechanical forces. A heterogeneous mixture that has a tendency of phase separation.

Dead space
acronym of:
Dead space

An area within a process engineering apparatus that is not reached during a process step. Such areas should be avoided in a mixer. The aim is to initiate total mixing across the whole volume with no dead space, in order to achieve an ideal mix of the whole mixer volume within a short time.

Drying-vacuum mixing-drying
acronym of:
Drying-vacuum mixing-drying

Contact drying, convection drying, reaction control, stripping, separation of fluids under pressure-, vacuum excitation and temperature control,Separation of active ingredients from solvents and suds as well as precipitation suspensions. Usually after agglomeration: gentle drying of baby food, self-service fast food, dried soups, cappuccino Vacuum mixing-drying of special synthetic PP and PE materials after precipitation or stripping Drying of aqueous, alcoholic or other solvent suspensions through vacuum excitation and temperature control.

USDA
acronym of:
USDA

The United States Department of Agriculture is responsible for food safety, promotes healthy nutrition and fights hunger.

Validation
acronym of:
Validation

Validation provides documented proof that a process or system satisfies the specified requirements during practical application. To this end the devices used (e.g. mixers) have to be qualified in advance.

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